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SEPT 20th: ES 162
Presenter: Dr. Craig Lee, Principal Investigator at Metcalf Archaeological Consultants, a Research Scientist II/Associate Professor at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR), and an Adjunct Instructor in the Department of Sociology & Anthropology at Montana State University
Title: Ice Patch Archaeology in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
Periglacial alpine snow and ice is melting in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and around the world in response to changing weather patterns. As it melts, some of this ancient ice is releasing an astonishing array of paleobiological and archaeological material, including trees, plants, animals, and insects, as well as rare and unique organic artifacts such as dart shafts, basketry, and other pieces of material culture. Consistent with the oral traditions of many tribal groups, the GYE ice patch record allows for the conceptualization of the alpine—in ancient times, at least—as an ecosystem in balance where humans and animals alike took advantage of a seasonally-enriched biome; however, much remains to be learned.
Ice patch resources are finite and may be lost in the coming decades. The exposure of ancient archaeological and paleobiological materials by the retreat of moisture-starved and heat-ravaged ice patches in the GYE is a tangible indication of climate change in the Rocky Mountain West, and the impacts transcend the divide between the cultural and natural world. The archaeological record demonstrates repeated use of ice patches by Native Americans for millennia. They were an important element of their sociocultural and geographic landscape.
A project sponsored by the Greater Yellowstone Coordinating Committee (GYCC) in 2013 resulted in the identification of over 450 prospective ice patches consistent with a posteriori criteria developed from observations at known ice patch archaeological and paleobiological sites in the GYE and elsewhere. Even more recently (2016), the ‘Camp Monaco Prize’ from the Buffalo Bill Historical Center’s Draper Natural History Museum, University of Wyoming’s Biodiversity Institute, and the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation enabled a group of scientists from the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research at the University of Colorado, the Institute on Ecosystems at Montana State University, and the US Geological Survey to undertake an intensive analysis of GYE ice patches, including a coring effort and field survey.
OCT 18th: ES 162
Presenter: Dr. Alan McMillan, Simon Fraser University
Title: Thunderbird and Whale: The Archaeology of Nuu-chah-nulth Whaling
Whaling was a central theme in the lives of the Nuu-chah-nulth people of western Vancouver Island. It featured heavily in not only their traditional economy but their art, ceremonies, and oral histories. This talk presents recent archaeological research in Barkley Sound, emphasizing evidence of ancient whaling, its development, and its persistence in Nuu-chah-nulth art and traditions today
NOV 15th: ICT 121
Presenter: Dr Sue Langley .
Title: Maryland Maritime Archaeology Program
Mallows Bay, The Ghost Fleet and Beyond On an ebb tide, nearly 100 skeletons of WWI-era wooden steamboats seem to rise from the waters of a small embayment on the Potomac River. This presentation will explain the history of these watercraft and how they ended up in Maryland and why they will be the focus of the first new National Marine Sanctuary in more than 20 years. While the centenary commemorations of WWI make this a timely endeavour, the area is steeped in history; much of it also represented in and around the bay.
JANUARY 17th: ICT 121
Presenter: Drs Trevor R. Peck and Caroline Hudecek-Cuffe, Archaeological Survey of Alberta
Title: The Archaeological Evidence for Painted Feather’s Pound
On December 20, 1809, North West Company fur trader Alexander Henry the Younger made a trip on horseback from the post at Fort Vermilion/Paint Creek House, which is located on the north bank of the North Saskatchewan River directly across from its confluence with the Vermilion River, to a Blackfoot camp and buffalo pound. Where was this Blackfoot camp and pound? Based on information from Henry’s journal we developed a model to delimit where the meeting between Painted Feather and Henry could have taken place. Then, to support this re-examination of the journal information and its relation to the topography of the area, we conducted an archaeological survey and excavation to produce physical evidence to support our proposed location of Painted Feather’s camp and pound.
FEB 21st: ICT 121
Presenter: Dr. Robert Losey, University of Alberta
Title: Domesticating the Arctic: Living with Dogs and Reindeer in the Yamal Region of Russia
Dogs are reindeer and iconic domestic animals of the Eurasian North, yet little is actually known about their long-term histories with people in this vast region. This presentation will describe several ongoing projects in the Yamal region of the Russian Arctic, including studies of the advent of dog sledding, and artifact evidence for the domestication and harnessing of reindeer. The presentation will feature some of this region’s most spectacular archaeological sites, which have yielded the Arctic’s largest collection of dog remains, well preserved sleds and skis, and perhaps the earliest examples of reindeer harnesses.
MARCH 21st: ICT 121
Presenter: Max Friesen, University of Toronto
Title: Inuvialuit Architecture: The Archaeology of Cruciform Houses in the Mackenzie Delta Within the great range of house types occupied by Northern peoples in the 19th century, a few stand out due to their size, complexity, or unusual form. One of the most spectacular is the cruciform semi-subterranean house occupied by Inuvialuit in the Mackenzie Delta region, Northwest Territories. These are known through traditional knowledge and ethnohistoric sources as very large, carefully constructed driftwood-framed houses with three alcoves bordering a central floor area. Over the past 60 years, several archaeologists have excavated portions of cruciform houses, leading to gradually increasing knowledge about them. However, due to their great size, deep burial, and problems with permafrost, it has been difficult to excavate one fully. In this paper, I report on the recent excavation of two large cruciform houses at the site of Kuukpak on the East Channel of the Mackenzie River. Following a brief overview of the ethnohistoric record, I will interpret aspects of the houses’ architectural form, construction techniques, episodes of rebuilding, and change over time.
Presenter: Pete Dawson University of Calgary
Title: Using Reality Capture Technologies to Monitor the Brooks Aqueduct National/Provincial Historic Site
The Brooks Aqueduct National/Provincial Historic site contains the remains of a 3.2-kilometer-long reinforced concrete flume designed to carry water east from Lake Newell, in eastern Alberta. It was built between 1912 and 1914 and it’s located to the northeast of the lake and just east of the town of Brooks. The site is significant due to its civil engineering achievement and because of its unusual design, materials, sheer size and scale, built in a time when the use of reinforced concrete construction was still in its early stages.
During its operating life, the Brooks Aqueduct suffered from the effects of a series of design flaws. The removal of a 122m section to permit the construction of Range Road 142 has also had deleterious effects in the structure. In response to these deficiencies, the Province has engaged in numerous interventions to ensure the preservation of the Aqueduct.
Reality capture technologies, such as terrestrial and airborne LIDAR, provide a means for a more thorough monitoring and tracking of past interventions and their success, as well as identifying present and future areas of concern. A particularly innovative and important component of the project is the proposed use of Change Detection Analysis to monitor processes that may be negatively impacting the Brooks Aqueduct. Specifically, the digital data from the Brooks Aqueduct will be used to explore how Change Detection Analysis can accurately identify and track natural and human-related processes, as well as their potential impacts on specific sections of the structure over time.
In this presentation, I explore how we are using 3D digital data to develop advanced heritage monitoring programs for historic structures and sites in the Province of Alberta, with specific reference to the Brooks Aqueduct Project.
Presenter: Meaghan Peurmaki-Brown
Title: Ancient Maya Settlement and Resource Development in East-Central Belize
Abstract: From 2014-2016, the Stann Creek Regional Archaeology Project (SCRAP) initiated Phase I Reconnaissance and Phase II Testing at the ancient Maya centre of Alabama, nestled up against the Maya Mountains in the Cockscomb region of the Stann Creek District of east-central Belize. First located by the Stann Creek Project in the 1970s, and later investigated by the Point Placencia Archaeological Project in the 1980s, the epicenter of the site was found to have been rapidly constructed during the late facet of the Late Classic and into the Terminal Classic (ca. 750-900 AD). In 2014, SCRAP members returned to the site in order to investigate settlement development at Alabama and its possible relationship to local resource extraction and trade. Phase I and Phase II had three goals: 1) to assess the Alabama epicenter for the first time since archaeological investigations in the 1980s, 2) to initiate the first systematic settlement survey, surface collection, and test excavations of residential zones in the area, and 3) to begin assessment of local, mesolocal, regional, and exotic resource development and use by the ancient Maya of the area. This presentation will introduce the audience to Alabama; discuss our current “boomtown” research framework and preliminary results; and outline our proposed plans for relational geography research in the larger Cockscomb region.
Presenter: Dr. Elizabeth Arnold
Title: Bringing the Food to the City: How stable isotope analyses of animal remains can address this question.
Abstract: Stable isotope analyses are well-established in archaeology as a means to determine diet, reconstruct environments and examine herd management strategies of domestic animals. Mobility, trade and exchange of animals both within a local economic system and regional context can be determined. In this paper, consideration is given to the question of how isotopic techniques can be utilized to identify animal management practices in cities in the Near East. This question will be explored with data from several urban contexts in the Southern Levant, (Israel).
Presenter: Michael C. Wilson
Title: Animal Landscapes and Animal Monuments of Plains First Nations, from Antler Piles to Medicine Wheels
Abstract: A transformational model suggests that nomadic Northwestern Plains aboriginal peoples expressed the same fundamental symbols through varied media in the cultural landscape. The linked concepts of circle and power axis reflected the structure of the cosmos. Acknowledging their role as a part of that cosmos, people were obligated to assist in its maintenance. Structures such as medicine wheels, antler piles, stone cairns, medicine lodges, and ribstones were linked through animal ceremonialism to an ongoing program of cosmic renewal that was not simply the “earth wisdom” or “primitive conservation” favoured by modern popular writers. Animals were thought to be unlimited in numbers and renewable as long as people undertook appropriate ritual. Failure of animals to return could have resulted from errors in ritual handling. This talk emphasizes findings about antler piles that were formerly present at several sites. It is argued that elk ritual became horse ritual, helping to obscure the former in the Historic period. Formal plans were elsewhere, too: the household plan also reflected the structure of the cosmos. The outer landscape was organized by extension from the household, prompting the illusion that although people moved regularly, the outer world remained much the same. Multiple ritual sites (including monuments) could be seen as iterations of a single “site” in a cyclic view of space. Monuments derived their power from their location; thus, they were “of” a site rather than “being” the site, and they tended to be treated as part of the natural world, not as separate from it. This worldview was actualized within a pattern of overlapping group territories (viewed as centres with radiating itineraries or vectors), cross-utilization of resources, and transient co-residence of linguistically diverse groups who could communicate readily through sign language.
Presenter: Dr. Barney Reeves & Dr. Margaret Kennedy
Title: Medicine Wheels and Ceremonial Landscapes: Building on Richard G. Forbis’s Pioneering Contributions
Abstract: Dick Forbis, Alberta’s first archaeologist, made many contributions to the archaeology of the Northwestern Plains, particularly in his ten years with the Glenbow Foundation (ca. 1955-1965). Among these were the recording, mapping and excavation of Alberta medicine wheels. However he, as well as other archaeologists in more recent years, focused on the medicine wheels themselves not the archaeological landscape in which they sit. The study and interpretation of these landscapes and the ceremonial stone feature sites contained therein are, in our opinion, critical to understanding medicine wheels as a whole.
This fundamental principle is illustrated in this talk based on our past four years of study at the Bull’s Forehead and Minor Medicine Wheel Complexes at and above the Forks of the Red Deer and South Saskatchewan rivers. We have found large scale ceremonial complexes, the largest identified to date in the Northern Plains. These extend for over 10km along and behind the valley edges containing thousands of ceremonial stone features sited and constructed only where the medicine wheels or focal reaches of the rivers are visible. They were places of pilgrimage, erected over a period of 500-1000 years by ancestral Gros Ventre, prior to their decimation by European diseases in the 1500s.
Presenter: Erik Johannesson
Title: Before the Khans: The Archaeology of the Xiongnu Empire in Mongolia (209 BC-200 AD)
Abstract: A prevailing view in anthropological and archaeological theory has been that nomadic societies are incapable of forming complex political polities that endure in the longue durée. Here, Dr. Johannesson challenges this view by presenting the results of over a decade of archaeological research on the Xiongnu Empire in Mongolia. According to Chinese texts, the Xiongnu Empire was formed when the charismatic leader Motun unified the nomadic steppe tribes of Mongolia and Siberia into a powerful confederacy that quickly emerged as a regional enemy of the Han Dynasty. The formation of this polity is identified archaeologically with sweeping changes in material culture, technology, and funerary customs. Drawing on fieldwork from Baga Gazaryn Chuluu in the north Gobi and Shombuuzin Belchir in the Altai foothills, this presentation will explore the archaeology of the Xiongnu Empire and how political centralization manifests in mortuary practice. Adopting a diachronic perspective, Xiongnu mortuary monuments will be discussed vis-à-vis preceding funerary traditions to illustrate that Xiongnu tombs represent a conspicuous inversion of previous customs. A scalar landscape approach will then be used to demonstrate how mortuary ideology was manipulated by the Xiongnu elite to incorporate local lineages of leadership into a broader Xiongnu political economy. Finally, the reopening of tombs in antiquity and osteological evidence of violent trauma will be discussed to illustrate that mortuary contexts formed important loci of Xiongnu state-craft, and arenas in which political ideologies were both imposed and contested.
Presenter: Bob Dawe and Dr. Marcel Kornfeld
Title: Nunataks and Valley Glaciers: the Icy Corridor
Abstract:The historic debate of the first peopling of the Americas has focused on two alternate routes of entry: a coastal route versus an ice-free corridor. The timing of this entry is generally regarded to coincide with Late Wisconsin glaciation, which at the very least left continental ice that still covered most of the north half of North America. The former option requires much of the west coast to be ice free, with boats used to navigate areas impossible to traverse by foot. The alternate option has the precondition of ice recession between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets, providing a terrestrial route of access along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains for both humans and herbivores. While the pendulum has swung towards the coastal route, no smoking gun exists that will deliver a champion in this controversy. With this paper we would like to present a third option that requires neither the precondition of boats nor full glacial retreat: the Icy Corridor. In this model we question that the waning glacial conditions in the Late Wisconsin were an insurmountable obstacle for travel. It is not our intent to champion a new “earliest” route, but rather demonstrate the viability of this glacial landscape as a transportation corridor that had hitherto been characterized as a barrier.
Presenter: Dr. Michael Waters
Title: Archaeological and Genetic Evidence for the Late Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas
Abstract: Archaeological evidence accumulated over the last few decades and new genetic evidence are showing that the 80-year-old Clovis First model no longer explains the exploration and settlement of the Americas by humans at the end of the last Ice Age. Evidence from archaeological sites in North and South America are providing empirical evidence that people occupied the Americas by 15,000 years ago. Studies of modern and ancient genomes confirm this age estimate and tell us who these people were and where they came from. Together the archaeological and genetic evidence is rewriting our understanding of the First Americans.
February 17, 2016: From the Desert to the Plains: A Paleoethnobotanical Research Program
October 21, 2015: Recent Discoveries in the Sierra
de Atapuerca (Spain)
September 16, 2015: The Ninth Clan—Exploring Apachean Origins in the Promontory Caves, Utah
November 19, 2014: Archaeological resource management and the Nicaraguan trans-oceanic canal
October 15, 2014: Managing Chaos at the Okotoks Erratic.
November 20, 2013: Landscape Change and Human History of the Athabasca Glacier Area.
October 16, 2013: Small Stones and Big Buttes: Pebble Quarrying in the Misty Hills.
September 18, 2013: On ’til Ragnarok: Underwater Excavations at the Viking Settlement of Birka 2013